Water cooled beryllium lenses have been successfully used in the white beam of an undulator; see Figure 1 below and Section 2.2 in Lengeler et al. (2005): Refractive x-ray lenses. A stack of 12 beryllium lenses, housed in an evacuated casing, was exposed to a white beam with a power density and a total power of about 100 W mm-2 and 40 W, respectively. The temperature was measured by thermocouples located near the beryllium platelets of the lenses.

Fig. 1. Left: Water cooled CRL at ESRF (ID10), 12 Be lenses with R = 0.2 mm. Right: Temperature-time profile in white beam

Note that the temperature of our refractive x-ray lenses must nowhere exceed 120°C .