• A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays, Nature 384 (1996), 49-51:
    This paper has boosted the development and the wide spread use of refractive x-ray lenses.
  • B. Lengeler, Refractive x-ray lenses: New developments, 2012:   download pdf
    This lecture gives a basic overview of the fundamentals of refractive x-ray lenses from RXOPTICS and their applications.
  • B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, M. Drakopoulos,
    Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range, J. Synchrotron Rad. (1999) 6, 1153-1167:
    In this article the theory for imaging by a compound refractive lens of an x-ray source and an object illuminated by it is developed in detail, including the effects of attenuation (photoabsorption and Compton scattering) and of roughness of the lens surface. In particular, a derivation of the effective aperture and of the diffraction limited lateral resolution of the CRL is given.
  • B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T.F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva,
    Refractive x-ray lenses, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38 (2005), A218-A222:
    This article deals with practical aspects of refractive x-ray lenses, like thermal and radiational stability, aberrations, microfocusing, and nanofocusing optics.
  • C. Schroer, Hard x-ray microscopy and microanalysis with refractive x-ray lenses, Habilitation thesis, RWTH Aachen University (2003)

Further reading

  • C. Schroer, B. Lengeler, X-ray optics, Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, editor F. Träger, 2nd ed. (2012), 1461-1474:
    This chapter describes the physics underlying x-ray optics and explains the work principles and performances of a variety of approaches, including refractive x-ray lenses, reflective optics, and diffractive optics.
  • T. Roth, L. Helfen, J. Hallmann, L. Samoylova, P. Kwaśniewski, B. Lengeler, A. Madsen,
    X-ray laminography and SAXS on beryllium grades and lenses and wavefront propagation through imperfect compound refractive lenses, Proc. SPIE 9207, Advances in X-Ray/EUV Optics and Components IX, 920702 (2014):
    This article presents an analysis of various beryllium grades and refractive x-ray lenses from RXOPTICS based on SAXS and x-ray laminography.
  • T. Roth, L. Alianelli, D. Lengeler, A. Snigirev, Materials for x-ray refractive lenses minimizing wavefront distortions, MRS Bulletin 42 (2017):
    In this survey article various lens materials and fabrication methods are compared with regard to optimal wavefront shaping.
  • T. Ewald, J.-C. Biasci,
    Characterisation of Al-compound refractive lenses for x-rays, Proceedings of IBIC2013, Oxford, UK (2013):
    This article compares aluminium 2D lenses with R = 50 μm from RXOPTICS with lenses of the same type from another manufacturer by means of beam deflection analysis, absorption scans, and analysis of imaging quality. The lenses from RXOPTICS are found to be of distinctly better quality.
  • S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, C. David,
    At-wavelength characterization of refractive x-ray lenses using a two-dimensional grating interferometer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011):
    In this paper a refractive x-ray lens from RXOPTICS is analyzed by means of hard x-ray grating interferometry.
  • F. Seiboth,
    Refractive hard x-ray nanofocusing at storage ring and x-ray free-electron laser sources, Thesis, University of Hamburg (2016):
    This thesis deals with several aspects of refractive nanofocusing, including a comparison of lens materials, optics characterization, aberration correction, and a new type of refractive lens (RLL).
  • M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, I. Snigirev, J. Schilling,
    X-ray high-resolution diffraction using refractive lenses, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 014102 (2005):
    This article presents a compact experimental setup for high resolution x-ray diffraction at high brilliance synchrotron sources based on refractive x-ray lenses from RXOPTICS.
  • G. B. M. Vaughan, J.P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigirev, A. Snigirev,
    X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses, J. Synchrotron Rad. (2011) 18, 125-133:
    This paper describes a transfocator which is a tunable x-ray focusing apparatus based on refractive x-ray lenses. It allows to change the number of lenses in the stack without breaking the vacuum.
  • A. Zozulya, L. Batchelor, K. Appel, U. Boesenberg, J. Hallmann, C. Kim, I. Lobato, W. Lu, C. Mammen, J. Möller, T. Roth, L. Samoylova, M. Scholz, R. Shayduk, K. Sukharnikov, A. Madsen,
    Beam conditioning CRL transfocator optics at the MID instrument of the European XFEL, Proc. SPIE 11111 (2019) X-Ray Lasers and Coherent X-Ray Sources: Development and Applications XIII, 111110H:
    In this paper several configurations involving two transfocators are described and focusing performance is analyzed.